Transformer Load Sharing with S.M.S. Alerting The main aim of the project is Transformer allocation whenever load is Download Article. sharing and monitoring unit will help to protect the generator against overload by different Transformer Distribution and Load Sharing Using. normal we used to control the industrial equipments by manual operation. immediately sends that particular SMS to the mobiles for which it is assigned andthis During the design of the automatic load shared transformers a lot of . The system worked according to specification by monitoring overloads and over- current.
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Automatic Transformer Distribution and Load Sharing System - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Automatic Transformer Distribution and Load Sharing System. Project Report-transmission Line Fault Monitoring Sample Cicode to Send Sms From Scada. Uploaded by. hifzur_sk. Monitoring transmission parameters for faults and quick isolation of the system from faults Distribution Transformer Outage Detection System”. PDF | This paper present a system of monitoring the phase of Blown fuses are common with distribution transformers to protect the Download full-text PDF parameters that can be monitored are load currents, under-voltage, The system sends an SMS to a designated number if an abnormality is.
When the potential is the transistor through resistor 1KOhm. When base signal greater than zener diode, it causes forward biasing of is high, transistor saturates and it energizes the relay.
The transistor. It consists of buzzer sound when there is over load detected. Mobile application normally identified a common. When relay is in off state 5. The load may be a fan or dc motor or heater coil, A prototyping board on Smartphone where tools can be when transistor starts conducting current starts flowing drag and drop the sliders, displays, graphs and other through the coil.
Which develops its own magnetic flux functional widgets. These widgets can control Arduino when the strength of current is suitable; whenever a and get data from it. Main requirement is that contact with normally open position NO. A diode connected in parallel across the primary replace all these functional features are more efficient and coil is to eliminate the effect of back EMF on the faster response. Relays have great application in industry.
Using the principle of energizing an Electromagnet we can 5. Currently, Blynk libraries work with this stuff: This circuit presented here can be used to detect over i. USB load condition resister 1ohm 10W is used as a over load ii. Ethernet shield sensing element.
When the load exceeds the maximum iii. WiFi shield rated value it draws current in excess of its rated value. Arduino with Ethernet This causes the potential drop across resister to increase.
ESP The optocoupler will isolate the ac mains from the faulty vii. Raspberry Pi Blynk will communicate with Pi's circuit. When the load exceeds watts, the transistor GPIOs inside the optocoupler senses this voltage and its collector viii.
More Arduino compatible shields and boards current increases proportionally. When the current Vishwanath M Soppimath et al. The term "Node MCU" by default which manufacturers are making wirelessly networkable refers to the firmware. The firmware uses micro-controller modules.
More specifically, ESP is a the Lau scripting language.
It is based on the Lau project, system-on-a-chip SOC with capabilities for 2. External alternate tools. A "core" is the collection of software flash memory can be accessed through SPI.
This is chip at their cores. Some of these modules have specific also known as the "ESP Core for the Arduino IDE" identifiers, including monikers such as "Wi07c" and "ESP- and it has become one of the leading software 01" through "ESP"; while other modules might be ill- development platforms for the various ESP based labeled and merely referred to by a general description — modules and development boards, including Node MCUs.
Espressif's official module is presently the 5.
It works as a standalone application, with the well. See the ESP article on Wikipedia for more lowest cost, and minimal space requirement. ESPEX hosts the application by booting up directly Figures show the circuit of Oil level sensing unit which from an external flash. Whenever there is presence of oil, oil acts as conducting medium between the probes and the 5. Integrated low power bit MCU transistor, that base of q1 gets the more negative voltage iii.
Integrated PLL, regulators, and power management state.
100+ Electrical Projects for Engineering Students
Supports antenna diversity probes become open and the q2 transistor is in cut off vii. WiFi 2. Sensors like LDR, temperature sensor, current sensor and voltage sensor monitors the respective parameters of the solar panel. The acquired data from Arduino controller is transferred to the PC where it is logged.
Arduino controller with motor driver circuit controls the motion of the robot in different angles. In this, current transformers along with Arduino controller measure the differential current and if any fault occurs, it operates the relay. This design is implemented using Arduino controller and Zigbee communication module. Boiler temperature and pressure are continuously monitored using temperature and pressure sensor respectively.
The PLC acquires these sensor values and depends on the control algorithm, it controls the actuators. SCADA system enables the remote monitoring and control of boiler operation. Photoelectric sensors detect the presence of vehicles on various junctions of the road and give the signals to the PLC. Based on the program in the PLC, it controls the traffic signals. Programmable logic controller PLC is programmed to perform different ARM movements by giving the corresponding signals to motor driver circuit.
Hall Effect sensor detects the position of the elevator and gives the corresponding signal to the PLC. According to the program in the PLC, it generates the control signals to the DC motor to control the movements of elevator.
SCADA system for this project is implemented for remote monitoring and control of the speed. This project achieves the precise control by exactly tuning the PID parameters using Ziegler-Nichols methods. Rotor resistance control method is implemented as starting method while over voltages, over current and over temperature protection schemes are implemented to protect the IM. Sequential switching of loads is achieved in this project. Here this system measures various parameters like speed, distance from other cars, alcohol presence in the cars etc.
It sends signal if any of the parameters were changed. The proposed system uses and ultrasonic sensor for detecting the obstacles in the path.
Automatic Transformer distribution and load sharing system Abstract
This paper explains the designing of BLDC motor drive. Switched Reluctance Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicle :Switched reluctance motor is a type of stepper motor that runs by reluctance torque.
It has features like simple, low cost, compatible size etc. One is Phase control switching and the other is integral cycle control switching. These two have their own disadvantages.
This system uses a finger print scanner for authentication of the customer. This project provides a voting machine that is reliable and secured. It uses finger print scanner to provide unique identity to every citizen. A touch screen based digital control of devices is shown here. Real-time Posture and Activity Recognition by Smart Shoe :In this paper, we discuss a method for performing automatic posture classification using Artificial Neural Networks operating with fixed point precision arithmetic.
The computational time is optimised through application of forward feature selection for determination of the most significant predictors. This system uses some wearable sensors and portable wireless devices.
Among them solar energy is the best source. Boost converters are required to increase the output. It has very good advantages compared to others in efficiency, reliability etc. Average current control technique is used in this.
Results are verified in mat lab. Though it has many advantages this multi level inverter MLI has number of power electronic components. Increased number of switches increases over all loss as switching losses increases.
This paper mainly focuses on decreasing the number of switches in MLI. This paper shows a UPS system that uses solar and wind power instead of mains supply as there is energy crisis. Cyber Security in the Smart Grid :The smart grid is revolutionary in the existing power grid.
The smart grid system enhances the future power system. Due to number of inter connected devices, there is a problem in cyber security. This paper focuses on the cyber security in this smart grid.
But it has some draw backs like high torque ripple, acoustic noise, speed oscillations. The functional blocks of PSS are developed in Simulink and simulation is carried out. This paper explains an extension to this method. Initially water is held in captive in an enclosure. Then it is raised to high potential energy using wind or water. This project uses timer in mono-stable mode which drives GTO Gate Turn-Off thyristors driver circuit so as to change the mains three phase supply from start to delta.
This project operates in three modes namely manual mode, auto mode and set mode. In manual mode, various loads are controlled by the input given by user by switches or remotely through GSM. In auto mode, loads are switched at regular default timings while in set mode loads are controlled based on the timings set by the user. The microcontroller continuously monitors the three phases of input supply for over voltage and single phasing conditions and accordingly switches the relays to switch the motor.
By receiving the feedback signal of speed, microcontroller will give PWM signals to the IGBT inverter bridge in order to drive the motor at desired speeds.
Power quality monitoring systems are capable of detecting disturbances by means of Mathematical Morphology MM very quickly. Yet, the signal under examination is frequently corrupted by noises, and the performance of the MM would be greatly degraded. Sen Ouyang and Jianhua Wang  have presented a quick process in order to detect the transient disturbances in a noisy atmosphere.
In this approach, the suitable morphologic structure element, appropriate mixture of the erosion and the dilation morphologic operators can develop the capability of MM.
In addition, the soft-threshold denoising technique based on the Wavelet Transform WT was used for purpose of reference. Thus the abilities of the MM can hence be restored. This technique has possessed the following merits: 1. Great speed in calculation, 2. At last, the validity of the proposed technique is demonstrated by the outcome of the simulation and the actual field tests.
The propagation of non-linear and time-variant loads leads to a copious number of disturbances on the electric network, from an extremely significant distortion of both currents and voltages, to transient disturbances on the supply voltage. Evaluating the quality of the electric power that is present in a network section is consequently becoming an impelling requirement, mainly in a deregulated electricity market, where every actor can be in charge for the injection of disturbances.
Yet, there are several respects of power-quality measurement, from both the methodological and instrumental point of views that are been unsolved yet and needs to be analyzed cautiously. An analysis of these problems and various suggestions about the development of the present research work on this area has been presented by Alessandro Ferrero .
Real-time monitoring of power quality necessitates great abilities of data-handling and data-processing. These requirements limit the possibility of monitoring, in spite of the fact that microprocessor-based monitoring systems have observed vital development in their storage and computational power.
Development of compact algorithms will benefit power quality in the following two ways: 1. Antonio Ginart et al. They have shown how their approach has enhanced the computational and storage requirements. Their work has presented: 1. We also changed the information by demodulating the signal at the receiving end.
Access Methods: Because radio spectrum is a limited resource shared by all users, a method must be devised to divide up the bandwidth among as many users as possible. One or more carrier frequencies are then assigned to each BS.
Each of these carrier frequencies is then divided in time, using a TDMA scheme, into eight time slots. One time slot is used for transmission by the mobile and one for reception. They are separated in time so that the mobile unit does not receive and transmit at the same time.
The gross transmission rate of the time slot is GSM is a digital system with an over-the-air bit rate of kbps. The downlink frequency band - MHz basic MHz band only. Channel Spacing: This indicates separation between adjacent carrier frequencies. In GSM, this is kHz. Each pair or characters are converted to a byte e. Tri-band GSM module with a size of 40x33x2. Based upon mature and field proven platform, backed up by our support service, from definition to design and production.
Power supply: Single supply voltage 3. Seven lines on Serial Port Interface 2. Serial Port 1 can use multiplexing function, but you cannot use the Serial Port 2 at the same time; 4. Serial Port 1 supports the communication rate as following: , , , , , , , and Default as bps. Autobauding supports the communication rate as following: , , , , , , , and bps. Serial port 2: Two lines on Serial Port Interface 1.
And the Serial port 2 can not use multiplexing function; 3. Proposed Microcontroller Based System For Substation Monitoring Distributed transformers are prone to damages due to the raise in oil temperature when there is an overload or huge current flows through the internal winding of the transformer. When the oil temperature rises, it increases the probability of getting damages in the transformers. The transformers are to be monitored very cautiously during these situations.
The proposed system consists of a monitoring unit that is connected with the distribution transformer for the purpose of monitoring the same. Hence, we introduce a simulation model which www. The monitoring system is constituted by three major units, namely, 1. Data processing and transmitter unit 2. Load and Measurement Systems 3. Receiver and PC display unit We have designed a system based on microcontroller 16FA that monitors and controls the voltage, current and oil temperature of a distribution transformer present in a substation.
The monitored output will be displayed on a PC at the main station that is at a remote place, through ADC Communication.
The parameters monitored at the distribution transformer are compared with the rated values of the transformer. Additionally the breakdowns caused due to the overload and high voltage are sensed and the signals are transmitted to the main station using ADC communication.
The software in the PC compares the received values with the rated measurements of the distribution transformer and shuts down the transformer so that it can be prevented from damages and Performances can be enhanced quiet to a remarkable level.
The controller consists of a sensing unit which collects the essential parameters such as current, voltage and the oil temperature within the distribution transformer. The digital display connected to the processing unit displays corresponding parameter values at the substation for any technical operations.
The controller also senses the overload and high current flow conditions in the internal windings that may lead to breakdown of the corresponding unit. The microcontroller is programmed in such a manner so as to continuously scan the transformer and update the parameters at a particular time interval. The parameter values sensed by the microcontroller are transmitted through the ADC transmitter connected to the microcontroller unit.
Both 1. The SIM interface is powered from an internal regulator in the module having nominal voltage 2. All pins reset as outputs driving low.
Figure: SIM interface reference circuit with 6 pins SIM card Monitoring and controlling by the proposed system The values of voltage, current and temperature of the transformer is directly applied to one of the input ports of the microcontroller.
Along with this, a display is connected in the input port of the microcontroller. The GSM transmitting section and the load variation control are connected to the one of the output ports in the microcontroller. The monitoring PC is connected to the main station. The microcontroller at the substation monitors and captures the current, voltage and temperature values for a particular period of time interval.
The captured values are stored in the data register and displayed using the LCD display. The monitored voltage, current and temperature values of the transformer are transmitted using the RF transmitter for each and every time interval.
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Any antenna tuned for the selected RF frequency can be utilized for the transmission of the RF signal but the antenna has to exhibit a unidirectional radiation pattern. In the receiver side of the proposed system, the receiver antenna converts the RF signal into electrical signal and acquires the information which has been transmitted by the transmitter.
Based on the received information, controlling www. If the receiver receives the transformer parameters which is greater than the fixed threshold level, then immediately the units is shutdown so as to protect the same.
Single sided, or double sided: When making a PCB you have the option of making a single sided board, or a double sided board. Single sided boards are cheaper to produce and easier to etch, but much harder to design for large projects. If a lot of parts are being used in a small space it may be difficult to make a single sided board without jump ring over traces with a cable.The controlling station aggregates all the user data and automatically detects the power theft user by comparing extra load consumed than that of actual value.
Electrical parameters like voltage, current, power and frequency are acquired by the data acquisition device. But it has some draw backs like high torque ripple, acoustic noise, speed oscillations. Further, this billing information is sends to utility companies as well as to the customers using GSM module.
A small DC fan is operated wirelessly from a distance of 3cm in this project to demonstrate the working.
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